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Scholarly and literary works of Hazrat Khwajabanda Nawaz Gesu Daraz (second installment)

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“Miraj-ul-Ashqeen” the first work of Urdu:

Most of the books and magazines of Khawaja Banda Nawaz Gesu Daraz are in Persian language and some are in Arabic. But “Miraj-ul-Ashqeen” is the only magazine written by him, which he wrote in Urdu language and it is recognized as the first book in Urdu language. Although some researchers look at its attribution to Khawaja Banda Nawaz with suspicion, the fact is that this is your work and the first systematic work of Urdu language and as it is the first work written in Urdu language. Therefore, major Urdu researchers and critics have directed their research and criticism towards it. It has been published several times with the correction and approval and research and arrangement of Urdu Baba Maulvi Abdul Haq, Professor Gopichand Narang and Professor Khaliq Anjum.

Urdu Baba Maulvi Abdul Haq writes:

Hazrat Gisu Daraz was the author of many works. Most of your books are in Persian and some in Arabic. It is also known that he wrote some magazines in his own language (Dakini) for the guidance of the common people. I have compiled and published one of his magazines “Miraj-ul-Ashqeen”. Its date of writing is 906 Hijri.

(The work of the Sufis in the early development of Urdu, p. 23, published by: Anjuman Targhee Urdu, Karachi, Pakistan)

There are thousands of ancient books and magazines of Urdu language. But Khawajabanda Nawaz’s “Miraj-ul-Ashqeen” has the importance and superiority because it is the first Urdu work of the first Urdu writer and the first prose writer. His prose is considered to be the first example of Urdu prose. After this book, Urdu prose writing and Urdu literary works begin with regularity. Dr. Syed Mubarizuddin Rifat writes in his research article “Shikar Nama”:

Gulbarga does not have the honor alone that it is an ancient historical place and was the capital of the first Islamic state of Deccan, great leaders of different religions are buried in its dust. On the other hand, this land also has the honor that Urdu first took a literary form beyond the common colloquial language on this land and the first prose writer of Urdu (Khwajabanda Nawaz Gesu Daraz) was born in this land. Is . We all know and believe Hazrat Makhdoom Abul Fateh Sadruddin Syed Muhammad Hussaini Khawaja Gisu Darazbanda Nawaz as a perfect saint and a great leader. Most people will also know that he is a great religious scholar and the author of many high-quality books in Arabic and Persian languages. But few people will know that you have written many magazines in Urdu language and these magazines written by you are considered to be the first examples of Urdu prose. It was a great fortune for the Urdu language that almost six hundred years ago, its literary prose began with the blessed hands of a pure and holy person like Khwaja Deccan. It was the result of the blessings of a saint like you that this language flourished and got a high and honorable position among the languages ​​of India.

(Shehbaz Monthly, Gulbarga Sharif, January and February 1962, p. 9)

Being the first book of Urdu and the earliest example of Urdu prose, “Miraj-ul-Ashqeen” has been considered the most important book of Urdu linguistically. Due to this importance and tradition, this book has been included in the curriculum of Delhi University and Punjab University since long. The subject of this book is Sufism and in it the basic theory of Sufism has been specially highlighted on the five elements namely Wajib-ul-Existence, Possible-Existence, Arif-Existence, Dhikr-i-Jali and Dhikr-e-Ilahi. Mr. Mushtaq Farooq (Research Scholar University of Hyderabad, Telangana) writes in his article:

In the history of Urdu language and literature, “Miraj-ul-Ashqeen” is considered to be the oldest prose work of Urdu. The author of this book is Hazrat Khawaja Banda Nawaz Gesu Daraz, a famous and well-known Sufi saint of Deccan. The eunuch Nawaz Gesu Daraz was well versed in Arabic, Persian and Deccani languages. He has created many magazines and many books. The total number of his magazines and books has been stated differently by different researchers. But the subject of all these writings is Sufism, religion and Sharia rules. But among all his works, “Miraj-ul-Ashqeen” has gained the most fame and popularity. It is a magazine and Sufism is its main axis and center. This book has been included in the curriculum of Delhi University and Punjab University for a long time, from which the importance and usefulness of this book can be estimated. In this magazine, a successful attempt has been made to explain Sufism better through Quran and hadiths. In it, it is explained that how a person can access Wajib-ul-Wujud through a specific theory of Sufism, namely, Wajib-ul-Wujud, Possible-Wijud, Arif-Wujud, Dhikr-Jali and Dhikr-Haqq. “Miraj-ul-Ashqeen” is recognized as the first prose book in Urdu. It was first compiled by Maulvi Abdul Haq and published with the help of two manuscripts in 1927 according to the case 1343 AH.

By the way! It is not possible to shed detailed light on “Miraj-ul-Ashqeen” in this short paper, the aim is only to present an introduction. Here, the text of the beginning and the end of the book is presented as a sample, so that the first prose sample of Urdu in the book can be estimated.

Sample Prose:

(A) The Prophet (peace be upon him) said: Let the burden of man be five bodies. Each body has five doors. There are five more doors. Pale body: Wajib-ul-Existence, his position is Satanic. Don’t look at the self with the eyes of the obligatory. Do not listen to greedy ears. Don’t smell bad until you are jealous. Don’t smell bad from the language of malice. Don’t waste your money on lust. To be a perfect physician, to give medicine to the patient.

What is the shop of the doctor of love?
The name of the cure is death

Feet are prohibited, so abstain. The tablet of meditation is the water of Michael’s help in the bronze of observation. Boil the jali and make it yellow. Sigun Kaada Dipna. Nirgun will be cured. The doctor said, so avoid it.

(b) The Prophet (peace be upon him) said: The scholars of the nation are the prophets of the Bani Israel. O mean, I will bear the burden of my Ummah, their prophets will be good for it.

Whom did you stay against?
That never reaches the desired destination

It means that the Prophet lived without burdening the homeland. O dear, righteous disciple! Who has created a good-footed messenger? To Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him). This is the advice.

(Miraj-ul-Ashqeen, p.: 61/81, Published: Shahrah, Urdu Bazar, Delhi)

Expressions and confessions of scholars, scholars and writers:

Sahib-e-Marat al-Asrar Sheikh Abdul Rahman Chishti Quds-Sara (died: 1094 AH) writes:

Oh Madan-e-Ishq wa Hamdam-i-Wasal, Oh the key of the repository of Dhul-Jalal, Oh the Mast-e-Ilast, the songs of the unfathomable, the beloved of the right Hazrat Syed Muhammad Geesu Daraz Quds Sira bin Syed Yusuf Al-Hussaini Dehlavi. He was one of the oldest caliphs of Hazrat Sheikh Naseeruddin Mahmood Chirag Dehlvi. Apart from being a Sayyid, he was also distinguished in knowledge and Wilayat. You are the possessor of lofty glory, wide reach, strong character, high courage and great words. Among the Mashaikh-e-Chisht, you have a special mushrab. Your method is unique in the mystery of reality.

(Marat al-Asr, translator, p.: 975, published: Lahore)

Famous researcher and writer Mufti Ghulam Sarwar Lahori writes:

Sheikh Naseeruddin Mahmood Chirag Dehlavi is one of the great Saints of Haq bin and the great Sheikhs of the predecessors and the true Caliph. Jame in the midst of nobility and nobility, dignity and guardianship, lofty glory and noble status and sublime speech. And among the Mashaikhs of Chisht, the Ahl al-Bihesht, he is a mushrab, especially in explaining the mysteries of reality, and there is a special method in explaining knowledge.

(Khazainat al-Asafia, Volume I, p: 381, Published: Munshi Nulakshwar, Kanpur)

The above mentioned text of Khazainat al-Asafia is taken from “Akhbar al-Akhyar”. Hazrat Sheikh Abdul Haq Muhaddith Dehlavi has written exactly the same thing and while mentioning the grace and perfection of Khwaja Banda Nawaz, he has acknowledged his academic majesty and spiritual grace and perfection. Eunuch Nawaz Gesu Daraz was without exaggeration a diver in the sea of ​​Shariah and Tariqat. There is hardly any field of religious studies which is beyond your reach. He was proficient in Qur’an, Hadith, Tafsir and Jurisprudence, and as far as the knowledge of ethics and Sufism is concerned, he had the rank of specialist rather than Ijtihadi. In “Jamis al-Kalam” you have described such detailed discussions and points regarding various sciences and arts that one is surprised and the forehead of thought and pen seems to be prostrated at the abode of your knowledge. See this quote from “Nuzhut-ul-Khawatar” and estimate the greatness of Khwajabanda Nawaz and the high position of knowledge:

He was a great scholar, a Sufi, a mystic, a powerful soul, a great theologian and a noble man. Shariat and Tariqat were comprehensive. There were great pious, pious, abiding and ascetic and elders who dived in the sea of ​​facts and knowledge. You have played an important role in the promotion and publication of Fiqh, Sufism, Tafsir and other sciences and arts.

(Nuzha-ul-Khwatar)

Syed Sabahuddin Abdul Rahman writes:

Among the Sufis, you are remembered by titles such as Qutb-ul-Qatab, Qaam-i-Bikh-i-Kufr-i-Bida’, Maqsood-i-Khalkat-e-Alam, Madan-i-Ishq, Hamdam-i-Wasal, Keyl-e-Makzas of Hazrat Dhul-Jalal, Mast-i-Ilast, Songs of Unfaithful Music, Beloved of Truth, etc. . One of the reasons for the greatness of Hazrat Syed Gesu Daraz is that the elders like Hazrat Makhdoom Ashraf Jahangir Samnani (peace be upon him) also came to his service for spiritual benefit.

(Bizm-e-Sofia, p.: 507 / 508, published by: Dar Al-Musinfeen Shibli Academy, Azamgarh)

Death of regret verses:

It is a pity that this saint, who had rendered great services in preaching and preaching, guidance and writing, and writing and compiling for more than half a century, passed away in 825 AH at the age of one hundred and four years, and he was a shining light in the sky of the Chishtiya dynasty. After spreading its rays with full glory, the sun set forever. From “Makhdoom-i-Din-i-Duniya” comes the date of death, which is based on reality. May Allah bless us all with your knowledge and spiritual blessings. Amen!!!

Teachings and sayings:

The teachings and sayings and sayings of religious elders are of great importance from material and spiritual point of view. The auspicious phrases, life-giving phrases, admonishing words and revolution-offering words and letters are very effective and endearing from the blessed interpreters of these souls. Therefore, after mentioning the brief history and works of Hazrat Khawaja Banda Nawaz Gesu Daraz, it seems appropriate to mention some of his sayings and sayings to the readers.

(1) A person should not consider truth and morality to be contrary to Shariat. Rather, consider each of them as a summary of the other. Just as the kernel of a walnut looks different from the shell of a walnut, yet the kernel is mixed with the shell in such a way that the oil is extracted from it as well. In the same way, reality, tariqat and Shariah are the same.

(2) At night in bed, a person should think about what he did during the day and during the day what he did at night. Account for your work. If you have done a lot of religious work and good deeds, then thank God and be independent on it, and if you have been negligent in religious works, then repent and make up for them as much as possible.

(3) If the pir invites the murid to engage in unlawful activities, then the murid should leave such pir, but in such a way that the pir does not know that he has taken separation due to bad faith.

(4) Until a person is freed from all worldly things, he should not step into the path of conduct.

(5) Fasting is one of the members of Sufism. Therefore, it is necessary for a Sufi to fast. Fasting keeps the self subdued and does not create wonder and pride in it.

(6) Even if a seeker attains a high level of excellence, he should not abandon the routine of his duties and rites.

(7) Do Qilaula at the time of fall, so that it is easy to wake up at night.

(8) Aspirants should always be ablution. It is better to perform a fresh ablution before every obligatory prayer. After ablution, perform Tahiyat-ul-Wudhu.

(9) Remove lust from the heart and if it is not removed, continue to strive for it.

(10) Do not make your name famous under any circumstances. Go to the market only in times of dire need.

(11) Keep hunger and thirst (hunger and thirst) and waking up at night as friends.

(12) Do not let people come and go near you.

(13) Starvation is necessary for self-destruction.

(14) Stay away from the company of the rich.

(15) Do not be anxious and anxious during times of trouble. Do not cry under any circumstances and cry only so that death does not come before reaching the destination.

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