Every Technician of EFI should be know the meaning of Sensor and Actuators.
What is Sensor?
A device that converts physical signals into electrical signals. This is called a sensor.
Example : ECT (Engine coolant temperature sensor) This sensor communicates the coolant temperature in an electrical signal to the ECM.
What is Actuators?
A device that converts electrical signals into mechanical signals (work). This is called a Actuators.
Example : The ECM which receives the electrical signal from the ECT sensor and sends it to the radiator fan and the fan receives the electrical signal and performs mechanical work.
In the field of EFI (Electronic Fuel Injection) cars, sensors and actuators play an important role in the proper functioning of the engine.
Sensors are devices that detect changes in a physical quantity and convert it into an electrical signal. In an EFI car, sensors are used to measure various engine parameters such as engine speed, air intake temperature, coolant temperature, oxygen content in the exhaust gas, and throttle position. These sensors provide critical information to the car’s electronic control unit (ECU), which uses this information to adjust the engine’s fuel injection and ignition timing in real-time, resulting in improved fuel efficiency and performance.
Actuators, on the other hand, are devices that receive a signal from the ECU and convert it into mechanical motion. In an EFI car, actuators are responsible for controlling various engine components such as the fuel injectors, idle air control valve, and ignition coils. These actuators receive signals from the ECU and adjust their operation to maintain the correct air-fuel ratio and ignition timing for the engine’s current operating conditions.
Together, sensors and actuators form the basis of the EFI system in modern cars, providing precise control over engine operation for improved performance, efficiency, and emissions.
Types of Sensor :
There are two types of sensors.
- Voltage Reference Sensors
- Voltage Generated Sensors
Voltage Reference Sensors :
Sensors that are receive electrical signals and then act. They are called voltage reference sensors.
Example : Vehicle locking system. When we use the car remote to lock and unlock the car remotely.
Voltage Generated Sensors :
Sensors that generate electrical signals themselves. They are called voltage generated sensors.
Example : CAM Sensor, Crank Sensor, CMP Sensor and CKP Sensor etc.